Periodontics involves the science of supporting structures of teeth, its diseases, and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes:

  • Gingiva or gums
  • Alveolar bone,
  • Cementum, and
  • Periodontal ligament. 

This would have fairly given you the idea that we are here talking about the parts that keeps your teeth anchored in the bone. The conditions that affect these structures will decrease the life span of your teeth.

Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm that is basiclly an accumulation of the various bacteria, combined with your immuno-inflammatory mechanisms and other risk factors, which lead to destruction of the supporting bone around natural teeth.

Plaque and Tartar provides an ideal surface for further bacterial accumulation, leading to gum disease. Tartar that is not removed results in significant bacterial accumulation, culminating in gum inflammation commonly called as gingivitis. Gingivitis results in red and swollen gums that bleed easily. Tartar need to be cleaned by a dental professional. Gingivitis is easily reversed with regular brushing.

Further accumulation of tartar can lead to more potent forms of gum disease such as periodontitis. Periodontitis is an advanced form of gum disease in which the teeth pull away from gums resulting in spaces that become infected. The plaque spreads further and begins to grow below the gum line. Bacterial toxins bring about a natural response causing bone and connective tissue to break down. The teeth are held firmly in place with the help of connective tissue and bone, which once begin to break down loosen the teeth. The loosened teeth may eventually have to be removed or may become so weak that it may fall off naturally.


The various diseases under this category are:

  • Gingivitis
  • Gingival hyperplasia
  • Early Periodontitis
  • Advanced periodontitis
  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  • Pregnancy epulis
  • Gum recession that could be localized or generalized
  • Tooth mobility
  • Horizontal or vertical bone loss

The various treatments under periodontology: